Science of Skin

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 A brief overview of common skin conditions – symptoms, causes, and treatments

Conditions that damage your skin are known as skin disorders. Two skin disorders with a wide range of symptoms are acne and eczema. The body’s largest organ, your skin, protects you from the environment. Your skin is strong, yet despite that, it is not impenetrable. Some of the variables that might cause or aggravate skin problems include allergens, environmental irritants, specific illnesses, and inherited factors.

In accordance with dermatologists everywhere, a person’s skin is a reflection of how they are feeling within. The reason for this is that your skin is the first organ to be able to warn you of any underlying diseases’ noticeable symptoms, since it is easily accessible and visible.

What are the most typical skin conditions?


Acne, clogged skin pores that let germs, dead skin, and oil accumulate in your pores. One of the most prevalent skin disorders impacting individuals worldwide is acne. It might show up on the chest, neck, shoulders, upper back, and face.


A patch of the skin that is watery, transparent, and filled with fluid is what distinguishes blisters. They can be found alone or in groups and range in size from vesicles, which are less than 1 centimetre (cm), to bullas, which are bigger.


This results in welts that are itchy and elevated after being exposed to an allergen. Hives on darker skin may be significantly lighter or darker than your normal skin tone and may seem elevated or irritated. In general, hives are red on lighter skin.

Alopecia areata, which causes patchy hair loss.

Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is characterised by dry, itchy skin that becomes swollen, cracked, or scaly. These blotchy areas can develop on the cheeks, hands, face, forehead, and scalp. The majority of people who suffer from eczema are youngsters.


Skin that is scaly and sometimes hot or swollen is a symptom of psoriasis. One of the most prevalent skin illnesses among individuals across the world is psoriasis. Plaque psoriasis is the name of the disease’s most prevalent variant. It is a disorder where an excessive amount of new skin cells are produced quickly, piling up on the skin’s surface to form scaly patches. Plaques frequently develop on the head, scalp, lower back, knee, and elbows.

Raynaud’s phenomenon

The Raynaud’s phenomenon is a periodic decrease in blood flow to your fingers, toes, or other body parts. It can cause numbness or a change in skin tone.

Rosacea often manifests as pimples on the face, flushed skin, and thick skin. This condition frequently shows itself as a propensity to flush more quickly than others. Rosacea’s primary symptoms include redness, sensitivity, and dry skin.


Skin cancer is caused by the unchecked development of abnormal skin cells. A dangerous form of skin cancer called melanoma commonly resembles a benign mole. However, if not identified in the earliest stages, it has a propensity to spread quickly and can be fatal. But if your dermatologist finds melanoma during routine tests, it is quite curable.


Skin areas with vitiligo lose their pigment. White spots on the skin appear when vitiligo is present. Any part of the body can be affected, and the majority of vitiligo patients have white patches all over their bodies.


A complicated autoimmune condition is lupus. The precise effects might differ from person to person and it produces inflammation and discomfort. Any area of the body might be impacted by lupus. Red spots, sunburn-like rashes on the nose and cheeks, and circular, itchless rashes are common skin symptoms. Along with this, there may also be fever, tiredness, swollen, stiff, or painful joints.

Rare Skin Disorders

Argyria: Skin colour changes brought on by a buildup of silver in the body.

Actinic Prurigo: Itchy rashes brought on by exposure to the sun

Harlequin Ichthyosis: A condition where the skin develops from birth with thick, hard plates or patches.

Epidermolysis Bullosa: A connective tissue disorder that results in brittle skin that is prone to blistering and tearing.

Lamellar Ichthyosis: An infant with this condition has a waxy skin covering that peels after a few weeks of life, exposing red, scaly skin beneath.

Necrobiosis lipoidica: Skin rashes that may develop into sores or ulcers on the lower legs.

Skin diseases: what causes them?

Certain lifestyle decisions may increase the risk of developing skin problems. Underlying medical conditions may have an effect on your skin. Frequent causes of skin conditions include:

Bacteria that are entrapped in your hair follicles or pores

Illnesses affecting your thyroid, kidneys, or immune system

Exposure to environmental stimuli, such as allergens or the skin of another person


Parasites or fungi residing on your skin

Drugs, such as those used to treat IBD (inflammatory bowel illness).



Health Issues Increasing the Risk of Skin Diseases

Diabetes: Due to blood circulation abnormalities, people with diabetes may encounter a variety of skin problems:  acanthosis nigricans, boils, folliculitis, and other bacterial illnesses including styes, diabetic  dermopathy and fungal infections.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: These bowel-related conditions, as well as the medications used to treat them, can cause skin disorders including anal fissures, skin tags, eczema due to allergies and vasculitis.

What are the symptoms of skin conditions?

Patches of discoloured skin (abnormal pigmentation)

Ulcers, lesions, or open sores

Rashes, perhaps itchy or painful

White, red, or pus-filled pimples

Rough skin or scales

Dry skin

Peeling skin

How are skin conditions treated?

Many skin conditions are successfully treated. A dermatologist (a doctor who specialises in skin conditions) or another medical professional could advise:



Skin resurfacing using a laser.

Medicated gels, creams, or ointments.


Oral drugs.

Steroid injections, creams, or tablets.

Surgical techniques.

Learning to distinguish between the many skin illnesses is beneficial, but a dermatologist’s accurate diagnosis and treatment are what matter most in this situation. Yes, although the majority of skin conditions are minor, some point to more significant problems and a need for medical attention. Make an appointment with a skincare specialist and discuss your concerns with the expert to find the best course of action for your skin issue.

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